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There are only a few he hasn't completed the comments on. Cantata 21, "Ich hatte viel Bek mmernis" 4. Bach's greatest cantata hits Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern (How lovely shines the morning star), BWV 1. Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76, Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir, BWV 29, Gott, man lobet dich in der Stille, BWV 120, Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen, BWV 56, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bach_cantata. Some instruments also carry symbolic meaning such as a trumpet, the royal instrument of the Baroque, for divine majesty, and three trumpets for the Trinity. Instruments include, in addition to the ones mentioned, flauto piccolo (sopranino recorder), violino piccolo, viola d’amore, violoncello piccolo (a smaller cello), tromba da tirarsi (slide trumpet), and corno da tirarsi. He composed the chorale cantata in Leipzig for the 27th Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 25 November 1731. Epilogue: Cantata 60, "O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort" Notes Bibliography Index Bach Cantata Notes BWV 1 - "Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern" The Feast of the Annunciation is celebrated each year on 25th March and for this day – on which, as an exception during Lent, music was performed in Leipzig – Bach wrote this cantata Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern.The lesson and gospel passage for this day are closely related. Ton Koopman, for example, is a conductor who has recorded a complete set of the cantatas and who favours a choir with four singers per part. Opening chorus 2. and “wo, wo?” (where, where? Richard Atkinson analyzes the dizzyingly complex counterpoint in the opening chorus of J. S. Bach's BWV 80 cantata, "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott". J.S. The cantata is a late addition to Bach’s cycle of chorale cantatas, featurin… This page will give you an overview of Bach’s approach to the composition of cantatas. This duet, like the third movement, is a love duet between the soprano Soul and the bass Jesus. The keystone of the cantata, the fourth of the nine movements, is the chorale for tenor. This is reflected in the recordings discussed below. This, along with Sheep may Safely Graze and Jesu Joy of Man′s Desiring must surely rank amongst the best known and most popular of Bach′s individual cantata movements. The first movement is a chorale fantasia based on the first verse of the chorale, a common feature of Bach’s earlier chorale cantatas. Bach - Cantata BWV 61 … Bach titled them for example Concerto in Dialogo, concerto in dialogue. Cantata 77: The Theological Background 8. Be sure to check out the other A2 musical pieces and AS musical pieces I have analysed on Ask Will Online.. Ich elender Mensch He composed the chorale cantatain Leipzig for the 27th Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 25 November 1731. Scholar Eric Chafe has written a detailed analysis of the entirety of Cantata 21 (Chafe, Ch. His cantatas usually require four soloists and a four-part choir, but he also wrote solo cantatas for typically one soloist and dialogue cantatas for two singers. He is believed to have composed at least 300 (a third or more have been lost). Some cantatas are structured as a dialogue, mostly for Jesus and the Soul (bass and soprano), set like miniature operas. Harmonic Analysis of J.S. There is a … Ideally, a cantata text started with an Old Testament quotation related to the readings, and reflected both the Epistle and the Gospel, as in the exemplary Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76. The orchestra plays independent material mainly based on two motifs: a dotted rhythm and an ascending scale “with syncopated accent shifts.” The lower voices add in unusually free polyphonic music images such as the frequent calls “wach auf!” (wake up!) 50+ videos Play all Mix - Bach Cantata BWV 61-1 Harmonic analysis with colored notes -Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland-YouTube J.S. Bach has, within the movement, made the journey from Christ in the throes of death, to the expression of human joy and gratitude which these circumstances ultimately brought about. The words for many cantatas combine Bible quotes, contemporary poetry and chorale, but he also composed a cycle of chorale cantatas based exclusively on one chorale. A solo movement begins Gott, man lobet dich in der Stille, BWV 120, because its first words speak of silence. Many cantatas composed in Weimar are set like chamber music, mostly for soloists, with a four-part setting only in the closing chorale, which may have been sung by the soloists. This cantata follows Bach'stypical symmetrical pattern with a tenor-choralestanza outlined by two recitative-ariasets and chorale-chorusesat the beginning and ending. Bach - Cantata No. Schlosskirche in Weimar where Bach composed and performed church cantatas monthly from 1714 to 1717. Here is some more specific information on the Bach cantata featured on our playlist. Most of the solo movements are based on poetry of contemporary writers, such as court poet Salomon Franck in Weimar, orGeorg Christian Lehms or Picander in Leipzig, with whom Bach collaborated. These relate to the readings prescribed by the Lutheran liturgy for the specific occasion. Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Brich dem Hungrigen dein Brot ("Break with hungry men thy bread" or "Give the hungry ones thy bread"), BWV 39, in Leipzig and first performed on 23 June 1726, the first Sunday after Trinity that year. Most arias follow the form of a da capo aria, repeating the first part after a middle section. Alfred Dürr describes it as giving “expression to the joy of the united pair,” showing a “relaxed mood” in “artistic intensity.”, The closing chorale is a four-part setting of the third verse of the hymn. Bach’s cantatas were an unimaginable achievement. This cantata is at the highest pinnacle of cantata composition. In his first years in Leipzig, starting after Trinity of 1723, it was not unusual for him to compose a new work every week. Bach's Cantata. Bach's almost 200 extant cantatas are among his important vocal compositions. The cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach are among his most significant and celebrated compositions. These instrumental parts are frequently set in virtuoso repetitive patterns called figuration. At age 38, put in … After his death, his son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach arranged the first and fifth movements, adopting a new text and adding trumpets and timpani. This is arguably the best known of Bach’s cantatas (fans of Cantata 140, Wachet auf might disagree, but it would certainly be a close contest).Certainly this cantata employs the most famous of all Lutheran chorales, “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (A might fortress is our God), a chorale written by Luther himself. Below is a complete analysis of the A2 Music baroque piece, Cantata No.48, ‘Ich elender Mensch’: movement I-IV which consists of Ich elender Mensch, Recitativo, Bach Chorale and Aria.Feel free to skip to the parts most relevant to you. Two Chorale Cantatas 7. Cantata 140 is one of only a trio of three-verse, pure-hymn chorale cantatas composed in the first half of the 1730s (source, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV140-D6.htm , BWV 140 -- Fugitive Thoughts). ), and long melismas in a fugato on “Halleluja.”. Bach did not follow any scheme strictly, but composed as he wanted to express the words. A typical Bach cantata of his first year in Leipzig follows the scheme: The opening chorus (Eingangschor) is usually a polyphonic setting, the orchestra presenting the themes or contrasting material first. The final chorale is typically a homophonic setting of a traditional melody. As far as we know, Bach’s earliest surviving cantatas date from 1707, the year he moved to Mühlhausen (although he may have begun composing them at his previous post at Arnstadt). The Cantata BWV 78, Jesu, der du meine Seele, is a product of Bach’s Leipzig period, having been written for the 14 th Sunday after Trinity. One size of choir probably does not fit all the cantatas. In his early compositions Bach also used instruments that had become old-fashioned, such as viola da gamba and violone. The division of the violas into two parts marks this as another early work and Dürr (p 307) places it as Bach′s second cantata to have been composed at Weimar in 1714. Please note that this reading deals with all seven movements of the piece. Of the over 1,120 entries in the Bach Works Catalogue (BWV), this cantata is No. 3 of Analyzing Bach Cantatas [New York: Oxford University Press, 2000]). Characteristics of Bach'scompositional style for cantatas occur throughout these seven movements (Palisca, 546). Movement 4 of the cantata is the base for the first of Bach’s Schübler Chorales, BWV 645. is replete with a mysterious celebration and exuberant liveliness. BWV 172, Bach marked a repeat of the opening chorus after the chorale. The casual listener may first be struck by the thought—I have heard this somewhere—before realising that the second movement is the basis for the Crucifixus of the Bm Mass . The final words were usually a stanza from a chorale. Soprano/alto aria. It was at Leipzig that Bach, between 1732 and 1744, developed and perfected the form of the ‘Chorale Cantata’. You won’t be tested on any of those examples; our goal is to get a general sense of Bach’s approach. A general outline and analysis of the cantata, primarily the 1. On the other hand, some modern performances and recordings use one voice per part, although Bach would have had more singers available at Leipzig, for example, while the space in the court chapel in Weimar was limited. In many arias Bach uses obbligato instruments, which correspond with the singer as an equal partner. The cantata in seven movements is scored for three soloists (soprano, tenor, and bass), a four-part choir, horn, two oboes, taille, violino piccolo, two violins, viola, and basso continuo. Chorale. While many have been lost, at least 209 of the cantatas composed by Bach have survived. The second movement is a recitative for tenor as a narrator who calls the “Töchter Zions” (daughters of Zion). A funeral cantata. It is based on the hymn “Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme” (1599) by Philipp Nicolai. Most arias follow the form of a da capo aria, repeating the first part after a middle section. Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Awake, calls the voice to us), BWV 140, also known asSleepers Wake, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach’s Chorales Here in one package is a rosetta stone that uncovers the countless mysteries of Bach’s masterful compositional art. The essence of this form is that the entire chorale becomes the basis of the cantata. Aria 4. The orchestra that Bach used is based on string instruments (violin, viola) and basso continuo, typically played by cello, double bass (an octave lower) and organ. Modal Questions 5. Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern (How beautifully the morning star shines), BWV 1, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.He composed it in 1725 in Leipzig for the feast of the Annunciation and led its first performance on 25 March 1725, which that year fell on Palm Sunday.Based on Philipp Nicolai's hymn " Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern" (1599), it is one of Bach's chorale cantatas. Bach later transcribed this movement for organ (BWV 645), and it was subsequently published along with five other transcriptions Bach made of his cantata movements as the Schübler Chorales. 3. Festive occasions call for richer instrumentation. Bach’s sacred cantatas are vocal works based on and in his personal religion, and are sung in language (as opposed to nonsense sounds, in jazz called “scat”). Typically Bach employs soprano, alto, tenor and bass soloists and a four-part choir, also SATB. It is a chorale cantata and uses a very famous chorale, “Wachet auf”, which appears in many Christian hymnals. Movement 4 of the cantata is the base for the first of Bach’s Schübler Chorales, BWV 645. Bach’s varied settings of the three-stanza hymns as chorale cantatas and his creation of hybrid chorale cantatas, most notably in Cantata 140, show his compositional mastery. Cantata BWV 211 During his time in Leipzig, Bach was responsible not only for music for the church, but for a good deal of music for the community. In Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61, for the 1st Sunday in Advent, the beginning of a new liturgical year, he shaped the opening chorus as a French overture. In retrospect, this cantata takes on a special significance because it was the last of the unbroken sequence of chorale fantasia cantatas before Bach interrupted his grand scheme (see chapter 1). It rates all the Cantatas and gives analysis on each. Many of Bach’s cantatas date from the years between 1723 (when he took up the post of Thomaskantor, cantor of the main churches of Leipzig) and 1745 (when the last one was probably written). The fifth movement is a recitative for bass, accompanied by the strings. Within the Lutheran liturgy, certain readings from the Bible were prescribed for every event during the church year; specifically, it was expected that an Epistel from an Epistle and Evangelium from a Gospel would be read. He composed this chorale cantata, in which both text and music are based on a Lutheran hymn, whilst in the position of Cantor of St Thomas Church in Leipzig. His collegium musicum in Leipzig was the principal beneficiary of Bach’s secular music composition, including, in all likelihood, this Coffee Cantata. The fortieth cantata of the cycle for the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary. He composed four such works in his third annual cycle, Selig ist der Mann, BWV 57 (1725), Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen, BWV 32, Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen, BWV 49, (both 1726), and Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid, BWV 58 (1727). It pictures the unity of the bridegroom and the “chosen bride.” The sixth movement is another duet for soprano and bass with obbligato oboe. An early example is Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn, BWV 152 (1714). He sometimes assigns the voice parts to the dramatic situation, for example soprano for innocence or alto for motherly feelings. The final chorale is typically a homophonic setting of a traditional melody. In addition to the church cantatas, he composed sacred cantatas for functions like weddings orRatswahl (the inauguration of a new town council), music for academic functions of the University of Leipzig at the Paulinerkirche, and secular cantatas for anniversaries and entertainment in nobility and society, some of them Glückwunschkantaten (congratulatory cantatas) and Huldigungskantaten(homage cantatas). Any lover of harmony and/or music theory will treasure this collection of the Bach chorales. Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme ('Awake, calls the voice to us'), BWV 140, also known as Sleepers Wake, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, regarded as one of his most mature and popular sacred cantatas. Thomaskirche, one of the two Leipzig churches where Bach composed and performed church cantatas almost weekly from 1723 to 1726. Discography and Discussions of J.S. Music was expected for all Sundays and Holidays except the quiet times (tempus clausum) of Advent and Lent; the cantatas were supposed to reflect the readings. It is based on Martin Luther’s hymn of the same name. Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140. Bach used an expanded structure to take up his position in Leipzig with t… A typical Bach cantata of his first year in Leipzig follows the scheme: 1. The specific character of a cantata or a single movement is rather defined by wind instruments, such asoboe, oboe da caccia, oboe d’amore, flauto traverso, recorder, trumpet, horn, trombone, and timpani. In the absence of clear documentary evidence, there are different options as to how many singers to deploy per part in choral sections. All movements, including the opening sinfonia, make use … A few cantatas are opened by an instrumental piece before the first chorus, such as the Sinfonia of Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir, BWV 29. 147 This cantata contains so much more than 'Jesu, joy of man's desiring' - but it's a great way in to this religious piece from 1723. The chorale can be as simple as a traditional four-part setting, or be accompanied by an obbligato instrument, or be accompanied by the instruments of the opening chorus or even expanded by interludes based on its themes, or have the homophonic vocal parts embedded in an instrumental concerto as in the familiar Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147, or have complex vocal parts embedded in the concerto as in Ärgre dich, o Seele, nicht, BWV 186, in a form called Choralphantasie (chorale fantasia). It is based on the hymn “Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme” (1599) by Philipp Nicolai. This is a sortable list of the Bach cantatas, the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach. In movements with winds, a bassoon usually joins the continuo group. Works from three annual cycles of cantatas for the liturgical calendar have survived. Written around the same time as Cantata 106, it is another example of a chorale cantata by Bach. Figure 2. Bach scored the cantata for four vocal soloists, a four-part choir and a Baroque chamber ensemble of up to three oboes of different kinds, strings and continuo. Like the chorale heard in Cantata 1, this chorale was written by Philipp Nicolai. The bass is often the vox Christi, the voice of Jesus, when Jesus is quoted directly, as in Es wartet alles auf dich, BWV 187, or indirectly, as in O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60. In the following duet with obbligato violino piccolo, the soprano represents the Soul and the bass is the vox Christi (voice of Jesus). The list of recordings was compiled by Aryeh Oron (October 2000 - September 2018) Thanks to contributors: Jacobus van Dijk (October 2012), Rolf Günther (October 2012), Matthias Hansen (September 2005, March 2006, August 2006, Febr2012, June 2013), Frits V. Herbold (February 2012), William Hoffman (November 2008), John Pike … Bach’sChorale cantatas are based exclusively on one chorale, for example the early Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4, and most cantatas of his second annual cycle in Leipzig. There is a powerful build-up from the point of … Working especially at the Thomaskirche and the Nikolaikirche, it was part of his job to perform a church cantata every Sunday and Holiday, conducting soloists, the Thomanerchor and orchestra as part of the church service. Bach also reworked the orchestration for a performance of the work in Leipzig (1723), though none of these changes affected the structure or form of the work. Figure 1. In an aria of BWV 172, addressing the Heiligste Dreifaltigkeit (most holy Trinity), the bass is accompanied only by three trumpets and timpani. The cantata is a late addition to Bach’s cycle of chorale cantatas, featuring additional poetry for two duets of Jesus and the Soul which expand the theme of the hymn. Many opening movements are based on quotations from the Bible, such as Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen, BWV 65, from Isaiah 60:6. On the listening exam, you will only be responsible for movements I, IV, and VII. Bach's Reflection on the Past: Moral Chorales in Cantata Designs 6. In an early cantata Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Awake, calls the voice to us), BWV 140, also known asSleepers Wake, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the chorale cantatain Leipzig for the 27th Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 25 November 1731. Therefore, among these factors of perception are a listener’s language as well as personality. Dürr (pp 758-765) devotes an unprecedented six pages to its description and analysis, a clear indication of the significance he attaches to it. Bach was a busy composer in his post at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig, often recycling the best parts of earlier works and recomposing them into a piece for a religious feat. The cantus firmus is sung by the soprano. Some cantatas are composed for only one solo singer (Solokantate), as Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen, BWV 51 for soprano, sometimes concluded by a chorale, as Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen, BWV 56 for bass. It is significant from the beginning to the very end. In some of these sections, you will find the names of specific cantatas or cantata movements that serve as an example of the characteristics discussed. There can be little doubt that this is one of the best known and most admired of Bach’s earliest cantatas. Bach used an expanded structure to take up his position in Leipzig with the cantatas Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75, and Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76, both in two parts, to be performed before and after the sermon (post orationem) and during communion (sub communione), each part a sequence of opening movement, five movements alternating recitatives and arias, and chorale. It is in E-flat major. Recorders (flauti dolci) are sometimes used to express humility or poverty, such as in the cantata Brich dem Hungrigen dein Brot, BWV 39. Thus Bach boldly creates, within this chorus, a transformation of mood wholly central to the conception of the entire cantata. The list includes both extant cantatas and, as far as known, lost cantatas. "Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, lieben": An Analysis of Cantata 77 9. The introductory chorale mvt. Aria 6. Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott(A mighty fortress is our God), BWV 80, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. Cantata 140 is one of Bach’s most famous and best-loved works. Cantata BWV 4, Christ lag in Todes Banden, is surely one of the most popular and best known of all of Bach’s sacred cantatas. The fourth movement, based on the second verse of the chorale, is written in the style of a chorale prelude, with the phrases of the chorale, sung as a cantus firmus by the tenors (or by the tenor soloist), entering intermittently against a famously lyrical melody played in unison by the violins (without the violino piccolo) and the viola, accompanied by the basso continuo. In an exemplary way both cantatas cover the prescribed readings: starting with a related psalm from the Old Testament, Part I reflects the Gospel, Part II the Epistle. Chorale The opening chorus (Eingangschor) is usually a polyphonic setting, the orchestra presenting the themes or contrasting material first. Recitative 3. Recitative (or Arioso) 5. 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